Adrenal haemangiomas are rare benign tumours that are usually incidentally identified (one example of an adrenal incidentaloma). Its significance mainly relates to the difficulty in differentiation from other malignant lesions.
Although these can be found at any age, they are most commonly encountered 40-70 years of age and are more common in women with a female:male ratio of approximately 2:1 3.
Adrenal haemangiomas are usually incidentally identified when the region is imaged for other reasons. On occasions, these lesions may haemorrhage 2-4. Bilateral adrenal haemangiomas have only been reported a few times 6.
Usually, no abnormality can be detected, although if very large the mass or its effects on surrounding structures may be appreciable. Phleboliths or dystrophic calcification are visible in up to two-thirds of cases 5-6.
Ultrasound features and non-specific demonstrating a mass of variable size and variable echotexture.
Typically adrenal haemangiomas are soft tissue attenuation masses, varying in size from a few centimetres to as large as 25 cm 3. The larger masses frequently have areas of calcification representing either phleboliths or dystrophic calcification in areas of previous haemorrhage 1-3.
With administration of contrast they enhance similarly to haemangiomas elsewhere 1,3-4,6:
- mainly peripheral
- gradual filling in over time is sometimes seen, but less frequently than in the liver
- central region is often scarred and does not significantly enhance
- tending to remain isodense to the aorta on all phases
MRI is often helpful, demonstrates lesions that are 1:
- hypointense relative to liver
- central intrinsic hyperintensity may be present due to haemorrhage
- very hyperintense peripherally
- central scar hypointense
T1 C+ (Gad)
- peripheral enhancement which persists
- gradual filling in sometimes seen
Treatment and prognosis
Unfortunately, it is difficult to exclude malignancy based on imaging or even biopsy, and as such some authors recommend all suspected adrenal haemangiomas to be excised, which is curative. Others recommend excision of only large or symptomatic tumours or those with imaging features which raise the possibility of malignancy 1,3,6.
Excision may either be a traditional open adrenalectomy or laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
Essentially the differential is that of any solid adrenal lesions, including:
- 1. Dunnick NR, Korobkin M. Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179 (3): 559-68. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK. Adrenal imaging with MDCT: Nonneoplastic disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193 (4): 1128-35. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.2551 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Linos DA, Heerden JA. Adrenal glands, diagnostic aspects and surgical therapy. Springer Verlag. (2005) ISBN:3540410996. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Skucas J. Advanced imaging of the abdomen. Springer Verlag. (2006) ISBN:1852339926. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Marsh RD, Samuel J. The Essentials of Clinical Oncology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. ISBN:8180615138. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Otal P, Escourrou G, Mazerolles C et-al. Imaging features of uncommon adrenal masses with histopathologic correlation. Radiographics. 19 (3): 569-81. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- adrenal gland anatomy
- adrenal adenoma
- adrenal metastasis
- adrenal cortical hyperplasia
- adrenal cortical carcinoma
- adrenal granulomatous disease
- adrenal myelolipoma
- adrenal haemorrhage
- adrenal abscess
- adrenal haemangioma
- adrenal cyst
- adrenal lymphangioma
- adrenal haemangiosarcoma
- adrenal lymphoma
- extramedullary haematopoiesis in adrenal gland
- tumours of the adrenal gland
- Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses: ACR White Paper
- differential diagnoses