Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) embryopathy is characterized by a group of dysmorphic features, which manifests either before or after birth in offsprings of women who are infected by HIV virus. The diagnosis however is in disfavour according to some authors 2.
Transplacental infection occurs generally in early gestation. The rate of maternal to fetal viral transmission varies from 14% in Europe to 45% in Africa. Of all children infected with HIV virus, approximately 99% where infected from their mothers.
Sonographic features are broad and include:
- signs of fetal infection may be present
- evidence of fetal demise
- intrauterine growth retardation
- craniofacial abnormalities, present in 50-75% of cases, can give characteristic facial appearances and include:
- prominent, square or box like forehead
- lateral bossing
- flat nasal bridge and short nose