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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) embryopathy is characterized by a group of dysmorphic features, which manifests either before or after birth in offsprings of women who are infected by HIV virus. The diagnosis, however, is in disfavour according to some authors 2.
Transplacental infection occurs generally in early gestation. The rate of maternal to fetal viral transmission varies from 14% in Europe to 45% in Africa. Of all children infected with HIV virus, approximately 99% were infected from their mothers.
Sonographic features are broad and include:
- signs of fetal infection may be present
- evidence of fetal demise
- intrauterine growth restriction
- craniofacial abnormalities, present in 50-75% of cases, can give characteristic facial appearances and include:
- prominent, square or box-like forehead
- lateral bossing
- flat nasal bridge and short nose
- 1. Blokzijl ML. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in childhood. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1988;8 (1): 1-17. - Pubmed citation
- 2. Bluth EI, Benson CB, Ralls PW et-al. Ultrasound, a practical approach to clinical problems. George Thieme Verlag. (2007) ISBN:1588904059. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Cordero JF. Issues concerning AIDS embryopathy. Am. J. Dis. Child. 1988;142 (1): 9. - Pubmed citation