Citation, DOI & article data
Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form. The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favor and is best avoided.
The patient may be asymptomatic, presenting for an early pregnancy ultrasound. Alternatively, she may present with vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Due to falling hCG levels, the clinical signs of pregnancy tend to subside.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is formed due to the invasion of the endometrium by the syncytiotrophoblast, and as a result, there is a positive pregnancy test and clinical signs of pregnancy are present.
An anembryonic pregnancy may be diagnosed:
- when there is no embryo seen on endovaginal scanning in a gestational sac with mean sac diameter (MSD) ≥25 mm 4
- there is no embryo on follow-up endovaginal scan10
- ≥11 days after scan showing gestational sac with yolk sac, but no embryo, or
- ≥ 2 weeks after a scan showing gestational sac without yolk sac or embryo
Assessment of interval mean sac diameter (MSD) growth has been shown to be insufficiently accurate in the diagnosis of anembryonic pregnancy, due to an overlap of gestational sac growth rates of viable and non-viable pregnancies.
Other ancillary features have been described, and may be considered poor prognostic factors, but do not contribute to the formal diagnosis of a failed pregnancy. These include:
- absent yolk sac when MSD >8 mm on transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS)
- poor decidual reaction: often <2 mm
- irregular gestational sac shape
- abnormally low sac position
Conditions that cause the appearance of an empty gestational sac include:
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