Citation, DOI & article data
Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in functional impairment after multi or polytrauma thereby necessitating a detailed evaluation.
The first classification system was proposed by Percival Pott 3, describing fractures in terms of malleoli involved: unimalleolar, bimalleolar, and trimalleolar. Despite its ease to identify fractures and decreased inter/intraobserver variability, it has been superseded by two systems of classification which takes into consideration the rotational mechanism of injury and the stability of the fracture; each has its own advantages and disadvantages:
- Lauge-Hansen classification 4
- Danis-Weber classification 5
- AO/OTA classification of malleolar fractures
An approach to reading an ankle radiograph can be read here.
Treatment and prognosis
Results following the anatomic reduction of a displaced ankle fracture are good. Post-traumatic arthritis has been reported in ~15% of patients despite an anatomic reduction, likely due to chondral injury 7.
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