The ankle joint (also known as the tibiotalar joint or talocrural joint) forms the articulation between the foot and the leg. It is a primary hinge synovial joint lined with hyaline cartilage.
The ankle joint is comprised of the tibia, fibula and talus as well as the supporting ligaments, muscles and neurovascular bundles. It carries the weight of the body and can undergo a myriad of pathology, most commonly traumatic injuries of the medial and lateral malleoli.
The tibia extends inferiorly to articulate with the talus on its medial aspect which has an inferior projection at its medial aspect, the medial malleolus.
The fibula has a similar inferior projection laterally, the lateral malleolus. The tibia has a partially curved surface to articulate with the talar dome which is wide anteriorly and narrows posteriorly.
The talus lies superior to the calcaneus and articulates with the navicular anteriorly.
The ligaments of the ankle form a medial and lateral group each comprising of three main ligaments.
The deltoid ligament is medial and is made of two parts. The deep parts is the tibiotalar part. The superficial triangular (delta) part is a continuous band projecting from the apex of the medial malleolus to the medial tubercle of the talus, the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus and the tuberosity of the navicular. With fusion with the spring ligament also.
The lateral ligaments include the anterior and posterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneofibular ligament. These ligaments fuse with the joint capsule to enclose the joint so any fracture involving the joint will invoke an ankle effusion. The interosseous tibiofibular ligament between the fibula and tibia is another important structure maintaining ankle stability. In the subtalar region the spring ligament (calcaneonavicular) maintains the integrity of the region.
There is an anterolateral, posteromedial and lateral compartment of the ankle typically superficial to the joint.
The posteromedial compartment, in order of anterior to posterior has the tendons of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus, the posterior tibial artery, the tibial nerve and flexor hallucis longus tendon.
In the peroneal compartment consists of peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, the sural nerve and the terminal branch of peroneal artery. The anteromedial superficial area is the long saphenous vein and saphenous nerve. Superficial to the peroneal compartment is the sural nerve and small saphenous vein.
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Anatomy: Lower limb
skeleton of the lower limb
- tarsal bones (mnemonic)
- ossicles of the lower limb
- joints of the lower limb
- hip joint
- additional structures
- extensor mechanism of the knee
- groove for the popliteus tendon
- knee bursae
- knee capsule
- lateral patellar retinaculum
- medial patellar retinaculum
- pes anserinus (mnemonic)
- ossification centers
- tibiofibular joints
- regional anatomy
- medial ankle
- lateral ankle
- anterior ankle
- medial collateral (deltoid) ligament
- lateral collateral ligament
- additional structures
- ankle bursae
- ossification centers of the ankle
- regional anatomy
- foot joints
- subtalar joint
- mid-tarsal (Chopart) joint
tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint
- intermetatarsal joint
- metatarsophalangeal joint
- interphalangeal joint
- spaces of the lower limb
muscles of the lower limb
- muscles of the pelvic group
- muscles of the thigh
- anterior compartment of the thigh
- posterior compartment of the thigh (hamstrings)
- medial compartment of the thigh
- muscles of the leg
- anterior compartment of the leg
- posterior compartments of the leg
- superficial posterior compartment of the leg (calf)
- deep posterior compartment of the leg
- lateral compartment of the leg
- muscles of the foot
- dorsal muscles
- plantar muscles
- 1st layer
- 2nd layer
- 3rd layer
- 4th layer
- accessory muscles
- vascular supply of the lower limb
arterial supply of the lower limb
- common femoral artery
- superficial femoral artery
- anterior tibial artery
- tibioperoneal trunk
- venous drainage of the lower limb
- arterial supply of the lower limb
- innervation of the lower limb
- lymphatic system of the lower limb