Citation, DOI & article data
Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) refers to vaginal bleeding during the second half of pregnancy (> 20 weeks gestation). APH may occur in varying degrees from mild to severe, with concomitant risk to mother and baby and potential to result in severe maternal/fetal compromise, including death.
It complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies 3. APH is associated with an increased risk of Postpartum hemorrhage.
- placental abruption
- placenta previa (20% of all APH)
- gestational trophoblastic disease
- vasa previa (rarest cause of hemorrhage in pregnancy 3)
- uterine rupture
- cervical or genital tract bleeding
- 1. Baxter GM, Allan PL, Morley P. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound. Wiley-Blackwell. (1999) ISBN:063203744X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Impey L. Obstetrics & gynaecology. Wiley-Blackwell. (2004) ISBN:1405107219. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) (2011) Green Top Guideline No. 63: Antepartum Haemorrhage, 1st edition at https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/ guidelines/ gtg63_05122011aph.pdf