Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Dr Avni K P Skandhan and Dr Henry Knipe et al.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure post ACL tear. It aims to reduce knee joint instability and thus prevent any further meniscal and/or cartilage damage. 

There are numerous surgical techniques for ACL reconstruction 1-3:

  • autograft reconstruction
    • bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft
    • hamstring autograft
      • four-strand autograft from semitendinosus and/or gracilis tendons
    • quadriceps tendon autograft
  • allograft reconstruction
  • synthetic graft reconstruction

The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft and four-strand hamstring autograft are the two most commonly employed techniques 1,2.

See article anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction complications for further details. 

Clinical failure is reported in ~10% (range 6-12%) of patients 4.  ~17.5% (range 13.6-21.5%) of patients develop symptomatic osteoarthritis post ACL reconstruction 1


Knee pathology

The knee is a complex synovial joint that can be affected by a range of pathologies:

Article information

rID: 72451
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • ACL reconstruction
  • ACL graft
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction
  • ACL repair

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