Anti-MOG associated encephalomyelitis

Anti-MOG associated encephalomyelitis represents a group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders united by the presence of IgG antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that overlap with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS)

Research in anti-MOG related diseases is rapidly evolving with new terminology being frequently proposed, including MOG-IgG-associated Optic Neuritis, Encephalitis, and Myelitis (MONEM), MOG antibody-associated diseases, anti-MOG encephalitis and other variations on this theme 1-4

Anti-MOG encephalomyelitis is primarily encountered in children and young adults 1. It appears that in approximately half of cases there is viral prodrome 2

Clinical presentation is that of other acquired demyelinating conditions and varies from individual to individual. Not all presentations are equally prevalent, however: optic neuritis (most common 41-63%), longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (30%), neuromyelitis optica (6-24%) and encephalomyelitis (2-6%) 2

No specific presentation distinguishes individuals with anti-MOG antibodies from those presenting with similar clinical manifestation but without the antibodies.

There are no specific imaging features of anti-MOG associated diseases and as such, these are discussed as part of the overall clinical manifestation. 

Although treatment and prognosis remain to be fully understood, it appears that generally, individuals with anti-MOG antibodies have fewer relapses and less severe clinical course than individuals with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies presenting with NMOSD 2.

Acute management with intravenous methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and cyclophosphamide have been reported and appear to be efficacious 2

It remains unclear what, if any, long-term medications are required in individuals with a relapsing time course, although it seems that response to immunotherapeutic agents is different to multiple sclerosis and that some agents efficacious in the latter may actually worsen anti-MOG related diseases  2

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rID: 62038
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