Appendiceal carcinoids are rare overall but represent the most common tumour of the appendix. The appendix is also one of the most common (but not the most common) locations for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
Appendiceal carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumours that classically arise at the appendiceal tip from subepithelial neuroendocrine cells 4.
Two subtypes are described 4:
- classic type
- Goblet cell type (more aggressive)
- small (usually <1 cm), round masses or diffuse appendiceal thickening
- most commonly at the appendiceal tip (75%) 1,2
Treatment and prognosis
Appendiceal carcinoids have a more benign course than other gastrointestinal carcinoids, rarely metastasising, with a 5-year survival rate of >90% 2,3.
The appendix can be affected by numerous inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic conditions:
- appendiceal mucocoele
neoplasms of the appendix
- appendiceal adenoma
- appendiceal adenocarcinoma
- appendiceal lymphoma
- appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma
- appendiceal mucinous adenoma
- appendiceal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
- appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma
- appendiceal neuroendocrine tumours
- 1. Brant WE, Helms C. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN:1608319121. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Levy AD, Sobin LH. From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics. 2007;27 (1): 237-57. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.271065169 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann CA et-al. Primary neoplasms of the appendix: radiologic spectrum of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2003;23 (3): 645-62. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.233025134 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Ganeshan D, Bhosale P, Yang T et-al. Imaging features of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201 (4): 773-86. doi:10.2214/AJR.12.9758 - Pubmed citation