Appendiceal carcinoids are rare overall but represent the most common tumour of the appendix. The appendix is also one of the most common (but not the most common) locations for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
Appendiceal carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumours that classically arise at the appendiceal tip from subepithelial neuroendocrine cells 4.
Two types are described 4:
- classic type
- Goblet cell carcinoid
- considered a distinct tumor, separate from classic neuroendocrine tumor, with its own evolving classification based on degree of differentiation 5
- small (usually <1 cm), round masses or diffuse appendiceal thickening
- most commonly at the appendiceal tip (75%) 1,2
Treatment and prognosis
Appendiceal carcinoids have a more benign course than other gastrointestinal carcinoids, rarely metastasizing, with a 5-year survival rate of >90% 2,3.
- 1. Brant WE, Helms C. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN:1608319121. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Levy AD, Sobin LH. From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics. 2007;27 (1): 237-57. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.271065169 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann CA et-al. Primary neoplasms of the appendix: radiologic spectrum of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2003;23 (3): 645-62. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.233025134 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Ganeshan D, Bhosale P, Yang T et-al. Imaging features of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201 (4): 773-86. doi:10.2214/AJR.12.9758 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Roy P, Chetty R. Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. (2010) World journal of gastrointestinal oncology. 2 (6): 251-8. doi:10.4251/wjgo.v2.i6.251 - Pubmed
The appendix can be affected by numerous inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic conditions:
- appendiceal mucocele
- appendiceal intussusception
neoplasms of the appendix
- appendiceal epithelial neoplasms
- Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix
- appendiceal neuroendocrine tumours
- appendiceal lymphoma