Citation, DOI & article data
The appendix arises from the posteromedial surface of the cecum, approximately 2-3 cm inferior to the ileocecal valve, where the 3 longitudinal bands of the taeniae coli converge. It is a blind diverticulum which is highly variable in length, ranging between 2 to 20 cm. The appendix lies on its own mesentery, the mesoappendix 1,2.
The tip of the appendix can have a variable position within the abdominal cavity 1,2:
- retrocecal (65-70%)
- pelvic (25-30%)
- pre- or post-ileal (5%)
The appendix is also attached to the ileocecal junction by the ileocecal fold (bloodless fold of Treves). The ileocecal fold is a peritoneal structure which runs from the antimesenteric aspect of the ileum, is reflected over the ileocecal junction, and joins the base of the mesoappendix. Between the ileocecal fold and mesoappendix is a fossa termed the inferior ileocecal recess.
- appendicular artery, a branch of the ileocolic artery (itself from the superior mesenteric artery) 1
- similarly named veins draining to the portal venous system
- see article: cecum
- see article: cecum
- additional arterial supply from accessory appendicular artery
- duplex appendix: very rare
- agenesis of the appendix
- horseshoe appendix: extremely rare
The normal appendix can be identified most of the time without a significant difference in detection rate across the following modalities 5:
- ultrasound: ~70%
- MRI: ~70%
- CT: ~85%
- an appendicolith is seen in 10% of patients, with 90% going on to develop appendicitis 1
- the appendix can fill with contrast during a barium enema study
A recently described dynamic ultrasound technique using a sequential 3-step patient positioning protocol can increase the visualization rate of the appendix 3. In the study, patients were initially examined in the conventional supine position, followed by the left posterior oblique position (45° LPO) and then a “second-look” supine position. Reported detection rates increased from 30% in the initial supine position to 44% in the LPO position and a further increase to 53% with the “second-look” supine position. The authors suggested that the effect of the LPO positioning step improved the acoustic window by shifting bowel contents.
History and etymology
'Vermis' is the Latin word for worm, hence vermiform means worm-like. The word appendix originates from the Latin verb 'appendere' meaning "to hang from".
- 1. Butler P, Mitchell A, Healy JC. Applied Radiological Anatomy. (2012) ISBN:0521766664. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Rosse C, Gaddum-Rosse P, Hollinshead WH. Hollinshead's textbook of anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (1997) ISBN:0397512562. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Chang ST, Jeffrey RB, Olcott EW. Three-step sequential positioning algorithm during sonographic evaluation for appendicitis increases appendiceal visualization rate and reduces CT use. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203 (5): 1006-12. doi:10.2214/AJR.13.12334 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Mcminn. Last's Anatomy. (2003) ISBN: 9780729537520
- 5. Dong Wook Kim, Chong Hyun Suh, Hee Mang Yoon et-al. Visibility of Normal Appendix on CT, MRI, and Sonography: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (2018) American Journal of Roentgenology. 211 (3): W140-W150. doi:10.2214/AJR.17.19321 - Pubmed