Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.
Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory changes, and motor weakness.
In some individuals, CSF flow is impaired, and they may develop syringomyelia which should, therefore, be sought in the cord.
All modalities will demonstrate similar findings although MRI is by far the most sensitive modality.
As a result of inflammation, the nerve roots become adherent to each other and to the theca. Three resultant morphological patterns have been described on the basis of imaging 5:
- type I: nerve roots are clumped together and distorted
- type II: nerve roots are adherent to the theca resulting in an empty thecal sac sign
- type III: nerve roots and theca are clumped together into a single soft tissue mass centrally within the spinal canal
Rarely ossification/dystrophic calcification occurs and this is known as arachnoiditis ossificans.
Treatment and prognosis
No treatment is available for adhesive arachnoiditis.
The main differential is leptomeningeal carcinomatosis that can also lead to nerve root clumping although this is not strictly speaking inflammatory in nature and thus not true arachnoiditis. Nevertheless, it is sometimes included under the broader meaning of arachnoiditis and certainly can mimic run-of-the-mill inflammatory arachnoiditis.
- 1. Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Modic MT et-al. MR imaging of lumbar arachnoiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;149 (5): 1025-32. doi:10.2214/ajr.149.5.1025 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Morisako H, Takami T, Yamagata T et-al. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine. 2010;1 (2): 100-6. doi:10.4103/0974-8237.77673 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Medico-legal radiology. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN:0729538311. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Castillo M. Neuroradiology Companion: Methods, Guidelines, and Imaging Fundamentals. LWW. ISBN:1451111754. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Kunam VK, Velayudhan V, Chaudhry ZA et-al. Incomplete Cord Syndromes: Clinical and Imaging Review. (2018) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 38 (4): 1201-1222. doi:10.1148/rg.2018170178 - Pubmed