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Arm flexion represents rotation in the anatomic plane such that the distal humerus moves ventrally. It represents raising the arm anteriorly and isolated flexion can achieve approximately 150-170° of movement. The opposite movement is arm extension, both of which contribute to the combined movement of shoulder circumduction.
It is produced by:
deltoid (anterior fibers)
pectoralis major (clavicular part)
biceps brachii (long and short heads)
See also movements of the arm.