Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Last revised by Andrew Murphy on 27 Jul 2022

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2:

  • stage 0: normal joint
  • stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present
  • stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the cartilage space
  • stage III: early subchondral bone cysts, squaring of the patella, widened notch of the distal femur or humerus, preservation of the cartilage space
  • stage IV: findings of stage III, but more advanced; narrowed cartilage space
  • stage V: fibrous joint contractures, loss of the joint cartilage space, extensive enlargement of the epiphyses with substantial disorganization of the joint

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: haemophilic arthropathy (likely stage IV)
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