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Arnold's nerve, also known as the auricular branch or mastoid branch, of the vagus nerve (CN X) is a small sensory nerve supplying the skin of the external acoustic meatus.
The greater occipital nerve has also been known in the past - confusingly - as the nerve of Arnold.
The use of the eponym 'Arnold' for the greater occipital nerve is now felt to be erroneous, based upon a historical misattribution. Therefore, by extension, the use of the term Arnold neuralgia, for occipital neuralgia, is also suspect and should be discarded 5.
Origin and course
Arnold's nerve originates from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve and also has a small contribution from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It ascends through the mastoid canaliculus (located lateral to the jugular fossa) in the mastoid portion of the temporal bone.
Arnold's nerve innervates the small parts of the external acoustic meatus and is the source of jugulotympanic paraganglioma from the non-chromaffin paraganglion cells, which are found along the nerve.
It is also responsible for the referred otalgia through the vagus nerve (CN X), in the case of laryngeal pathology.
History and etymology
Named after Philipp Friedrich Arnold, German anatomist (1803-1890) 1,3. Also known as the alderman's nerve on the belief that stimulating the external auditory canal will stimulate gastric emptying; the aldermen who ate too much for lunch would wiggle their fingers in the external canal to relieve their epigastric discomfort 4.
- 1. Hildebrand R. Biographical Note: Friedrich Arnold (1803-1890). Wurzbg Medizinhist Mitt. 1988;6:323-6. - Pubmed
- 2. Parviz Janfaza M.D., Joseph B. Nadol Jr., M.D., Robert J. Galla M.S.I. et al. Surgical Anatomy of the Head and Neck. (2011) ISBN: 9780674058033 - Google Books
- 3. Lekakis G. Philipp Friedrich Arnold, Ludvig Levin Jacobson and Their Contribution to Head and Neck Anatomy. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117(1):28-31. doi:10.1258/002221503321046603 - Pubmed
- 4. Pearce J & Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull, UK. Arnold's Nerve. ACNR. 2020. doi:10.47795/rump8417
- 5. Belvís R & Guerrero Á. Benito’s Neuralgia: The First Description of the Occipital Neuralgia Was Made for Spanish Doctors at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century. Neurol Sci. 2019;40(11):2425-9. doi:10.1007/s10072-019-03734-5 - Pubmed