Background radiation refers to exposure to ionising radiation in day-to-day life, excluding occupational exposures. Ionising radiation occurs naturally in the environment 1,2:
- radioactive gas (e.g. radon, thoron): 0.2-2.2 mSv/year
- external terrestrial (e.g. building materials): 0.3-1 mSv/year
- ingestion (i.e. diet): 0.2-1 mSv/year
- cosmic radiation: 0.3-1 mSv/year
Geographic variables in background radiation include altitude (higher altitude results in higher cosmic radiation exposure) and percentage of radioactive gas in the atmosphere. In Australia, the average background radiation is 1.5-2 mSv/year 1, while in the USA it is 3.2 mSv/year 2.
Sometimes but not always medical exposure is considered part of background radiation with average doses of 1.7 mSv (Australia) to 3.0 mSv (USA) per person per year 1,2, although this figure will vary dramatically depending on availability and technology.
- 1. "Ionising Radiation and Health." Radiation Protection. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 25 Sept. 2015. Web. 13 May 2017. .
- 2. Charles A. Kelsey, Philip H. Heintz, Gregory D. Chambers, Daniel J. Sandoval, Natalie L. Adolphi, Kimberly S. Paffett. Radiation Biology of Medical Imaging. ISBN: 9781118517130
- x-ray production
- x-ray tubes
- tube rating
- interaction with matter
- beam collimators
- air gap technique
- intensifying screen
- x-ray film
- image intensifier
- digital radiography
- digital image
- x-ray artifacts
- radiation units
- radiation safety
- radiation detectors