Citation, DOI and article data
Baker cysts, or popliteal cysts, are fluid-filled distended synovial-lined lesions arising in the popliteal fossa between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the semimembranosus tendons via a communication with the knee joint. They are usually located at or below the joint line.
They represent neither a true bursa nor a true cyst, as they occur as a communication between the posterior joint capsule and the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa.
Two peaks are described: at 4-7 years and 35-70 years 7.
- degenerative arthropathy 2
- rheumatoid arthritis
- Charcot joint involving the knee 3
- post-traumatic in athletes 6
Baker cysts are most often found incidentally when the knee is imaged for other reasons.
Symptomatic presentation may be acute when rupture occurs, in which case the chief differential diagnosis is deep venous thrombosis. A chronic/subacute presentation can manifest as a popliteal fossa mass or with pain.
Two pathological processes are described 7:
- a valve-like connection between the knee joint and the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa, resulting in fluid being squeezed in one direction
- no connection, with primary gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursitis
Normally the first line investigation:
- well-defined cyst with a 'neck' at its deepest extent, extending into the joint space between the semimembranosus tendon and the medial head of the gastrocnemius
- identification of a fluid-filled structure at the posteromedial knee is suggestive of a popliteal cyst, but identification of the 'neck' between the tendons is necessary for a definitive diagnosis
- usually anechoic, but may contain internal debris
Exquisitely outlines the cyst as a mass extending from the joint space with high T2 signal content.
Treatment and prognosis
In children, they can be common, with most spontaneously resolving within 10-20 months. Aspiration may be performed, with steroid injection shown to be beneficial in reducing Baker cyst size and improving symptoms 5,6,10. If the symptoms persist and/or the cyst is very large, a surgical excision is an option.
Recognized complications include:
- dissection: the cyst usually dissects inferomedially but can dissect proximally, anteriorly, intermuscularly or intramuscularly
- rupture: leaking of cyst fluid into the popliteal fossa, between fascial planes and surrounding the hamstrings and medial gastrocnemius muscles; moreover, there is edema of the soft tissue and irregularity of the cyst wall
- compression: of the popliteal vessels and tibial nerve
- compartment syndrome: can be either anterior or posterior
On ultrasound consider:
- large parameniscal cyst
- liquified hematoma in the popliteal fossa
History and etymology
It was first described by the Irish surgeon, Robert Adams (1791-1875) 14 in 1840 and its intra-articular origin was described by William Morrant Baker (1839-1896) 6,12,13.
- 1. Ward EE, Jacobson JA, Fessell DP et-al. Sonographic detection of Baker's cysts: comparison with MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176 (2): 373-80. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Miller TT, Staron RB, Koenigsberg T et-al. MR imaging of Baker cysts: association with internal derangement, effusion, and degenerative arthropathy. Radiology. 1996;201 (1): 247-50. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Toussaint SP, McCabe S. Baker's cyst imaging. Int J Emerg Med. 2010;3 (4): 469-70. Int J Emerg Med (full text) - doi:10.1007/s12245-009-0157-0 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 4. Jamadar DA, Jacobson JA, Theisen SE et-al. Sonography of the painful calf: differential considerations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179 (3): 709-16. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Köroğlu M, Callıoğlu M, Eriş HN et-al. Ultrasound guided percutaneous treatment and follow-up of Baker's cyst in knee osteoarthritis. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81 (11): 3466-71. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.05.015 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Bandinelli F, Fedi R, Generini S et-al. Longitudinal ultrasound and clinical follow-up of Baker's cysts injection with steroids in knee osteoarthritis. Clin. Rheumatol. 2012;31 (4): 727-31. doi:10.1007/s10067-011-1909-9 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Handy JR. Popliteal cysts in adults: a review. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;31 (2): 108-18. doi:10.1053/sarh.2001.27659 - Pubmed citation
- 8. Baker WM. On the formation of synovial cysts in the leg in connection with disease of the knee-joint. 1877. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1994; (299): 2-10. Pubmed citation
- 9. Abdelrahman MH, Tubeishat S, Hammoudeh M. Proximal dissection and rupture of a popliteal cyst: a case report. Case Rep Radiol. 10;2012: 292414. doi:10.1155/2012/292414 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 10. Smith MK, Lesniak B, Baraga MG et-al. Treatment of Popliteal (Baker) Cysts With Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration, Fenestration, and Injection: Long-term Follow-up. Sports Health. 2015;7 (5): 409-14. doi:10.1177/1941738115585520 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 11. Conaghan PG, O'Connor P, Isenberg DA. Musculoskeletal Imaging. OUP Oxford. (2010) ISBN:0191575275. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 12. "William Morrant Baker, F.R.C.S". Br Med J. 1896 Oct 17; 2(1868): 1169–1170. :https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1868.1169
- 13. Adams R (1840) Arthritis, chronic rheumatic, of the knee joint. Dublin J Med Sci 17:520
- 14. Herrick JB. Robert Adams, Surgeon. (1939) Annals of medical history. 1 (1): 45-49. Pubmed