Barkovich classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Last revised by Dr Andrew Dixon on 12 Jan 2022

Barkovich classifies focal cortical dysplasias among his extensive classification system for malformations of cortical development, distributing them as follows:

  • Type I and type IIb (transcortical dysplasia - Taylor type with balloon cells) as non-neoplastic malformations due to abnormal neuronal and glial proliferation or apoptosis 
  • Type IIa (transcortical dysplasia without balloon cells) as malformations due to abnormal cortical organization

In contrast, the Palmini classification, the leading classification system used for focal cortical dysplasia, based its classification purely on histopathological grounds, and has recently been largely replaced by the  Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia (2011).

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