Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities
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At the time the article was created Frank Gaillard had no recorded disclosures.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Joshua Yap had no financial relationships to ineligible companies to disclose.View Joshua Yap's current disclosures
Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities occur in a wide variety of conditions. Ischemia/hypoxia, metabolic disorders and toxins, particularly those that affect the respiratory chain, have a predilection for affecting the basal ganglia as they are highly metabolically active.
They can be thought of in terms of the specific signal abnormality or according to the underlying disease processes.
Signal intensity changes
Although there is significant overlap between some of these lists they are discussed separately.
increased T2 signal in the basal ganglia (usually also results in decreased T1 signal)
viruses (e.g. flavivirus encephalitis)
autoimmune encephalitis (e.g. anti-D2 dopamine antibodies)
neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) (e.g. PKAN)
alcohol: e.g. Wernicke encephalopathy
respiratory chain toxins
- 1. Hegde AN, Mohan S, Lath N et-al. Differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Radiographics. 31 (1): 5-30. doi:10.1148/rg.311105041 - Pubmed citation