Blueberry muffin syndrome

Last revised by Dr Daniel J Bell on 28 Sep 2019

Blueberry muffin syndrome (a.k.a. blueberry muffin baby or rash) refers to a skin appearance seen in pediatric patients with multiple raised cutaneous, classically blue/purple lesions which is due to extramedullary hematopoiesis in the dermis.

The syndrome was originally described in congenital rubella cases in the United States in the 1960s 3. It is also seen in other congenital infections, malignancies (e.g. primary adrenal neuroblastoma) and hematological disorders.

Pathology

Etiology
congenital infections
hematological disease
malignancy
congenital vascular disease
others

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