Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Last revised by Derek Smith on 04 Jul 2021

Blumcke et al. proposed the most recent (2011) 2 and now widely adopted consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia, which shares many features with the previously described classifications system by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005). 

Unfortunately, as is the case with many classification systems that have developed in parallel with numerous iterations and revisions, there is significant overlap between the various classifications systems with the same terminology used slightly differently. 

  • type I: focal cortical dysplasia with abnormal cortical lamination
    • a: radial cortical lamination
    • b: tangential 6-layer cortical lamination
    • c: radial and tangential cortical lamination
  • type II: focal cortical dysplasia with dysmorphic neurons
    • a: without balloon cells
    • b: with balloon cells
  • type III: architectural distortion of cortical layer
    • a: in temporal lobe with hippocampal atrophy
    • b: adjacent to glial or glioneuronal tumor
    • c: adjacent to vascular malformation
    • d: adjacent to other lesions acquired in early childhood

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: Type I - disturbance of lamination
    Drag here to reorder.