Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia
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At the time the article was created Frank Gaillard had no recorded disclosures.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Frank Gaillard had the following disclosures:
- Biogen Australia Pty Ltd, Investigator-Initiated Research Grant for CAD software in multiple sclerosis: finished Oct 2021 (past)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
Blumcke et al. proposed the most recent (2011) 2 and now widely adopted consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia, which shares many features with the previously described classification systems by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).
Unfortunately, as is the case with many classification systems that have developed in parallel with numerous iterations and revisions, there is significant overlap between the various classification systems with the same terminology used slightly differently.
type I: focal cortical dysplasia with abnormal cortical lamination
a: radial cortical lamination
b: tangential 6-layer cortical lamination
c: radial and tangential cortical lamination
type II: focal cortical dysplasia with dysmorphic neurons (Taylor dysplasia)
a: without balloon cells
b: with balloon cells
type III: architectural distortion of cortical layer
a: in temporal lobe with hippocampal atrophy
b: adjacent to glial or glioneuronal tumor
c: adjacent to vascular malformation
d: adjacent to other lesions acquired in early childhood
In 2022 the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force, released a proposed consensus classification of focal cortical dysplasia which builds upon the exiting Blumcke classification.
It adds two new categories 3:
mild malformations of cortical development with excessive heterotopic neurons
mild malformations of cortical development with oligodendroglial hyperplasia
no definite FCD on histopathology
It also proposes an integrated multi-layered classification that adds genetic and neuroimaging information, coming to an integrated diagnosis 3.
- 1. Kabat J, KróL P. Focal cortical dysplasia - review. Pol J Radiol. 2012;77 (2): 35-43. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Blümcke I, Thom M, Aronica E et-al. The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission. Epilepsia. 2011;52 (1): 158-74. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02777.x - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Najm I, Lal D, Alonso Vanegas M et al. The ILAE Consensus Classification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia: An Update Proposed by an Ad Hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission. Epilepsia. 2022;63(8):1899-919. doi:10.1111/epi.17301 - Pubmed