Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, also known as sarcoma botryoides, is a type of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and accounts for 5-10% of all rhabdomyosarcomas 6.
It tends to occur in pediatric population, often between birth and 15 years of age 7.
Rhabdomyosarcomas generally have a nonspecific infiltrative appearance, the botryoid variant is unusual in that it manifests as a polypoid or "grape-like lesion" beneath the mucosa. It does not infiltrate the epithelium, and is described to have an intratubular appearance5.
They occur principally beneath a mucous membrane 3,6. Recognized sites of occurrence include:
- vagina 6
- urinary bladder 6
- cervix 2
- biliary tract - rhabdomyosarcoma of biliary tracts 4
With vaginal and urinary bladder locations being the most common.
Lesions can be large. Signal characteristics are similar to rhabdomyosarcoma i.e 1:
- T1: low to intermediate
- T2: high
Grapelike intraluminal masses would favor a botryoides type.
History and etymology
Botryoid, derived from the Greek bótry(s) for grape, means resembling the form of grapes.
Macroscopic differential diagnoses for the vaginal and urinary bladder locations based on the polypoid appearance include 5:
- yolk sac tumor
- tumoral cystits
For the pelvic/presacral region consider:
- 1. Wong-you-cheong JJ, Woodward PJ, Manning MA et-al. From the Archives of the AFIP: neoplasms of the urinary bladder: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26 (2): 553-80. doi:10.1148/rg.262055172 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Houghton JP, Mccluggage WG. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix with focal pleomorphic areas. J. Clin. Pathol. 2007;60 (1): 88-9. doi:10.1136/jcp.2005.034769 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Foxx SD, Smoker WR, Ghatak NR et-al. Primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the scalp. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16 (7): 1511-3. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Donnelly LF, Bisset GS, Frush DP. Diagnosis please. Case 2: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree. Radiology. 1998;208 (3): 621-3. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Agrons GA, Wagner BJ, Lonergan GJ et-al. From the archives of the AFIP. Genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 17 (4): 919-37. Radiographics (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Schepper A.M. De, F. Vanhoenacker, P.M. Parizel and J. Gielen. Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. 3rd ed. Springer, 2005. ISBN: 3540248099.
- 7. Kransdorf Mark J and Mark D Murphey. Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. Second Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. ISBN: 0781747716.