Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Julian Maingard had no recorded disclosures.View Julian Maingard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Frank Gaillard had the following disclosures:
- Biogen Australia Pty Ltd, Investigator-Initiated Research Grant for CAD software in multiple sclerosis: finished Oct 2021 (past)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
Broca's area is located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis (Brodmann area 45) and pars triangularis (Brodmann area 44)) of the dominant hemisphere, anterior to the anterior commissure line. It is anterior to the primary motor cortex on the precentral gyrus.
superior division of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)
This language-eloquent area is most often located in the left hemisphere, also in left-handed individuals 4. However, right-hemispheric dominance may occur in roughly 4% of right-handed individuals and may be as high as 27% in extreme left-handers 5.
Maybe even more interestingly, there appears to be significant plasticity of organization in the brain regarding the shift of language-eloquent hemisphere 5. This has recently been demonstrated to occur in right-handed patients under experimental conditions with left-sided (virtually reversible) perisylvian lesions by functional MRI (fMRI) 3.
Additionally, some doubt has been cast on the role of Broca's area in long term speech production outcomes following damage to Broca's area, with other regions (e.g. anterior arcuate fasciculus) implicated as being as, if not more, important 7.
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