Brock model for pulmonary nodules
Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Henry Zhao had no recorded disclosures.View Henry Zhao's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Bahman Rasuli had no recorded disclosures.View Bahman Rasuli's current disclosures
The Brock model, also known as the PanCan model, is a multivariable model that estimates the risk that a pulmonary nodule on CT scan is lung cancer.
The model was developed from participants enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study 1, has been validated in lung cancer screening and clinical populations 1-3, and is recommended by the British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules 4.
Predictors of lung cancer in the Brock model 1:
- older age
- female sex
- family history of lung cancer
- larger nodule size
- upper lobe nodule location
- part-solid nodule type
- lower nodule count
By providing an estimate of nodule lung cancer risk, the Brock model can assist in determining appropriate follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules detected on CT.
An online calculator is available on UpToDate® 5.
- 1. McWilliams A, Tammemagi MC, Mayo JR, Roberts H, Liu G, Soghrati K, Yasufuku K, Martel S, Laberge F, Gingras M, Atkar-Khattra S, Berg CD, Evans K, Finley R, Yee J, English J, Nasute P, Goffin J, Puksa S, Stewart L, Tsai S, Johnston MR, Manos D, Nicholas G, Goss GD, Seely JM, Amjadi K, Tremblay A, Burrowes P, MacEachern P, Bhatia R, Tsao MS, Lam S. Probability of cancer in pulmonary nodules detected on first screening CT. The New England journal of medicine. 369 (10): 910-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1214726 - Pubmed
- 2. Winkler Wille MM, van Riel SJ, Saghir Z, Dirksen A, Pedersen JH, Jacobs C, Thomsen LH, Scholten ET, Skovgaard LT, van Ginneken B. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. European radiology. 25 (10): 3093-9. doi:10.1007/s00330-015-3689-0 - Pubmed
- 3. Al-Ameri A, Malhotra P, Thygesen H, Plant PK, Vaidyanathan S, Karthik S, Scarsbrook A, Callister ME. Risk of malignancy in pulmonary nodules: A validation study of four prediction models. Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 89 (1): 27-30. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2015.03.018 - Pubmed
- 4. Callister ME, Baldwin DR, Akram AR, Barnard S, Cane P, Draffan J, Franks K, Gleeson F, Graham R, Malhotra P, Prokop M, Rodger K, Subesinghe M, Waller D, Woolhouse I. British Thoracic Society guidelines for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules. Thorax. 70 Suppl 2: ii1-ii54. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207168 - Pubmed
- 5. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/calculator-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-malignancy-risk-brock-university-cancer-prediction-equation-in-adults