Brock model for pulmonary nodules

Last revised by Bahman Rasuli on 02 Aug 2021

The Brock model, also known as the PanCan model, is a multivariable model that estimates the risk that a pulmonary nodule on CT scan is lung cancer.

The model was developed from participants enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study 1, has been validated in lung cancer screening and clinical populations 1-3, and is recommended by the British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules 4.

Predictors of lung cancer in the Brock model 1:

  • older age
  • female sex
  • family history of lung cancer
  • emphysema
  • larger nodule size
  • upper lobe nodule location
  • part-solid nodule type
  • lower nodule count
  • spiculation

By providing an estimate of nodule lung cancer risk, the Brock model can assist in determining appropriate follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules detected on CT.

An online calculator is available on UpToDate​® 5.

See also

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