There is a preponderance for bronchial anthracofibrosis affecting women in their sixties.
Exposure to biomass fuel smoke 2,4 is a risk factor. There is also a potential relationship between bronchial anthracofibrosis and tuberculosis 1. Co-existence of tuberculosis and anthracofibrosis is high (~50%), and the CT findings are similar for the two conditions 3,4.
Chronic productive cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain, fever and general weakness 1,2.
Pulmonary functional tests show an obstructive pattern in 50% of the patients affected, with small airway dysfunction varying according to the severity of bronchial stenosis.
Chest x-ray findings are non-specific 2:
- atelectasis (48%)
- linear shadows (40%)
- consolidation (29%)
- reticular or reticulonodular pattern (25%)
- mass lesion (7%)
- segmental collapse distal to the involved bronchi 1,2
- right middle lobe is the most frequently involved 1
- enlarged mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes adjacent to the involved bronchi or calcified nodes adjacent to the bronchi 1,2
- bronchial narrowing accompanied by thickening of the wall or peribronchial cuffing 1,2
- other findings: fibrotic bands, nodules, bronchiectasis
- 1. Kim HY, Im JG, Goo JM et-al. Bronchial anthracofibrosis (inflammatory bronchial stenosis with anthracotic pigmentation): CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174 (2): 523-7. doi:10.2214/ajr.174.2.1740523 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Gupta A, Shah A. Bronchial anthracofibrosis: an emerging pulmonary disease due to biomass fuel exposure. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2011;15 (5): 602-12. doi:10.5588/ijtld.10.0308 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Park HJ, Park SH, Im SA et-al. CT differentiation of anthracofibrosis from endobronchial tuberculosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191 (1): 247-51. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.2161 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Han FF, Yang TY, Song L et-al. Clinical and pathological features and imaging manifestations of bronchial anthracofibrosis: the findings in 15 patients. Chin. Med. J. 2014;126 (14): 2641-6. Pubmed citation