Bronchial anthracofibrosis

Bronchial anthracofibrosis is defined as luminal bronchial narrowing associated with anthracotic pigmentation on bronchoscopy, without a relevant history of pneumoconiosis or smoking.

There is a preponderance for bronchial anthracofibrosis affecting women in their sixties.

Exposure to biomass fuel smoke 2,4 is a risk factor. There is also a potential relationship between bronchial anthracofibrosis and tuberculosis 1. Co-existence of tuberculosis and anthracofibrosis is high (~50%), and the CT findings are similar for the two conditions 3,4.

Chronic productive cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain, fever and general weakness 1,2.

Pulmonary functional tests show an obstructive pattern in 50% of the patients affected, with small airway dysfunction varying according to the severity of bronchial stenosis.

Chest x-ray findings are non-specific 2:

  • segmental collapse distal to the involved bronchi 1,2
    • right middle lobe is the most frequently involved 1
  • enlarged mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes adjacent to the involved bronchi or calcified nodes adjacent to the bronchi 1,2
  • bronchial narrowing accompanied by thickening of the wall or peribronchial cuffing 1,2
  • other findings: fibrotic bands, nodules, bronchiectasis

Article information

rID: 32576
System: Chest
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Inflammatory bronchial stenosis with anthracotic pigmentation

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads

Cases and figures

  • Case 1
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 1: bronchoscopy
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

     Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

     Thank you for updating your details.