Bronchial arterial aneurysm refers to any form of aneurysmal dilatation involving any segment of the bronchial artery. The term is sometimes used synonymously with a bronchial arterial pseudoaneurysm 2.
They are a rare entity and are reported in <1% of those who undergo selective bronchial arterial angiograms 8.
Their exact pathogenesis is not well known. Most cases have been reported in patients with the following background conditions:
- lung cancer
- recurrent infection
- thoracic trauma
- Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2
Bronchial artery aneurysms have also been found in individuals with predisposing congenital conditions and systemic vascular diseases such as cystic fibrosis 3 and atherosclerosis. In patients without predisposing pulmonary or systemic disease, bronchial artery aneurysms are extremely rare.
They can be mediastinal (juxta-aortic) or intrapulmonary.
Treatment and prognosis
The treatment options for bronchial artery aneurysm include transcatheter embolization, placement of a covered stent, and surgery.
Catastrophic hemorrhage is is one of the most feared complications.
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