Bronchial arterial aneurysm

Last revised by Yuranga Weerakkody on 3 May 2022

Bronchial arterial aneurysm refers to any form of aneurysmal dilatation involving any segment of the bronchial artery. The term is sometimes used synonymously with a bronchial arterial pseudoaneurysm 2.

They are a rare entity and are reported in <1% of those who undergo selective bronchial arterial angiograms 8.

Most patients are asymptomatic until they rupture. A large mediastinal aneurysm may present as a mediastinal mass, acute superior vena cava obstruction or dysphagia 5.

Their exact pathogenesis is not well known. Most cases have been reported in patients with the following background conditions:

Bronchial artery aneurysms have also been found in individuals with predisposing congenital conditions and systemic vascular diseases such as cystic fibrosis 3 and atherosclerosis. In patients without predisposing pulmonary or systemic disease, bronchial artery aneurysms are extremely rare.

They can be mediastinal (juxta-aortic) or intrapulmonary.

The treatment options for bronchial artery aneurysm include transcatheter embolization, placement of a covered stent, and surgery.

Catastrophic hemorrhage is is one of the most feared complications.

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