Bronchial arterial enlargement usually occurs as a result of bronchial pulmonary shunting. This can result from a number of situations:
- underlying parenchymal pathology
- those with certain forms of pulmonary hypertension 2.
- chronic pulmonary embolism 6
- following certain repaired of congenital cardiac anomalies
- e.g. arterial switch for simple transposition of the great arteries 1
Assessment of the presence and extent of bronchial arterial enlargement is particularly important in those presenting with haemoptysis.
CT angiogram - thorax
The bronchial arteries typically arise from the thoracic aorta at the T3-T8 levels. 80% percent of arteries arise from the T5 to T6 level. Enlarged arteries are often seen and dilated tortuous vessels at this level in the mediastinum. The proximal bronchial arteries are usually greater than 2 mm 2,7.
- 1. Wernovsky G, Bridges N, S. Mandell V et-al. Enlarged bronchial arteries after early repair of transposition of the great arteries, Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1993;21 (2): . doi:10.1016/0735-1097(93)90690-3
- 2. Webb WR, Higgins CB. Thoracic Imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2010) ISBN:1605479764. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Song JW, Im JG, Shim YS et-al. Hypertrophied bronchial artery at thin-section CT in patients with bronchiectasis: correlation with CT angiographic findings. Radiology. 1998;208 (1): 187-91. Pubmed citation
- 4. Furuse M, Saito K, Kunieda E et-al. Bronchial arteries: CT demonstration with arteriographic correlation. Radiology. 1987;162 (2): 393-8. Pubmed citation
- 5. Campbell M, Gardner F. Radiological features of enlarged bronchial arteries. Br Heart J. 2004;12 (2): 183-200. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 6. Hasegawa I, Boiselle PM, Hatabu H. Bronchial artery dilatation on MDCT scans of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: comparison with chronic or recurrent pulmonary embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182 (1): 67-72. doi:10.2214/ajr.182.1.1820067 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Chung MJ, Lee JH, Lee KS et-al. Bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries in patients with hemoptysis: depiction on MDCT angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (3): 649-55. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.1961 - Pubmed citation