Bronchial arterial enlargement usually occurs as a result of bronchial pulmonary shunting. This can result from a number of situations:
- underlying parenchymal pathology
- those with certain forms of pulmonary hypertension 2.
- chronic pulmonary embolism 6
- following certain repaired of congenital cardiac anomalies
- e.g. arterial switch for simple transposition of the great arteries 1
Assessment of the presence and extent of bronchial arterial enlargement is particularly important in those presenting with haemoptysis.
CT angiogram - thorax
The bronchial arteries typically arise from the thoracic aorta at the T3-T8 levels. 80% percent of arteries arise from the T5 to T6 level. Enlarged arteries are often seen and dilated tortuous vessels at this level in the mediastinum. In this situation, the proximal bronchial arteries are usually greater than 2 mm 2,7.
- 1. Wernovsky G, Bridges N, S. Mandell V et-al. Enlarged bronchial arteries after early repair of transposition of the great arteries, Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1993;21 (2): . doi:10.1016/0735-1097(93)90690-3
- 2. Webb WR, Higgins CB. Thoracic Imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2010) ISBN:1605479764. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
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- 7. Chung MJ, Lee JH, Lee KS et-al. Bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries in patients with hemoptysis: depiction on MDCT angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (3): 649-55. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.1961 - Pubmed citation
- 8. Walker CM, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Martínez-Jiménez S, Kunin JR, Wible BC. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 35 (1): 32-49. doi:10.1148/rg.351140089 - Pubmed