Bronchial carcinoid tumour
Bronchial carcinoid tumours are carcinoid tumours primarily occurring in relation to a bronchus. They were previously incorrectly termed as bronchial adenomas. They usually occur in association with a segmental or larger bronchus.
Typically affects patients from 3rd to 7th decades with the mean age around 45 years 6,9.
Presentation can vary dependent on location. Central neoplasms usually give symptoms due to bronchial obstruction (such symptoms can include pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, emphysema or even a lung abscess); if airway obstruction is partial, symptoms such as cough, wheezing and recurrent pulmonary infections can occur. Peripheral tumours on the contrary are generally asymptomatic and they are discovered occasionally. Presentation with the carcinoid syndrome is rather rare (~2-5%) 4,9.
They are neuroendocrine neoplasms that range from low-grade typical carcinoids to more aggressive atypical carcinoids. They can therefore demonstrate a wide spectrum in terms of clinical behaviour as well as histology.
Most (~60%) tend to be central within the tracheobronchial tree 3.
- multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 12
- Cushing syndrome: due to ACTH-producing carcinoid tumour types 1
Chest radiographic features are often non-specific. They are most frequently seen as round or oval opacities with sharp and often notched margins 2. Associated airway compression with pulmonary atelectasis may be also seen in some cases.
Central lesions are usually seen as:
- a single hilar or perihilar mass which is usually well-defined, round or ovoid
- can be of any size but are typically 2-5 cm
- there is often marked homogeneous contrast enhancement due to high vascularity
- calcification (usually eccentric) can occur but is not a common feature
lung cancer: overview
non small-cell lung cancer
- adenosquamous carcinoma
- large cell carcinoma
- primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of lung
- squamous cell carcinoma
- salivary gland type tumours
- pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours
- preinvasive lesions
- benign neoplasms
- pulmonary metastases
- lung cancer screening
- lung cancer staging
- non small-cell lung cancer
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