Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Yuranga Weerakkody had no recorded disclosures.View Yuranga Weerakkody's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Henry Knipe had the following disclosures:
- Integral Diagnostics, Shareholder (ongoing)
- Micro-X Ltd, Shareholder (ongoing)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Henry Knipe's current disclosures
Bronchiolitis (plural: bronchiolitides) is a broad term that refers to any form of inflammation of the bronchioles. It is often used in situations where the inflammation primarily occurs in airways smaller than 2 mm 6. It can carry variable clinical, functional and morphological expressions. The bronchiolar disease may be a primary or a secondary condition.
According to some authors, there is some overlap with the term small airways disease 5.
Usually not detected at chest radiography but may manifest with non-specific findings such as ill-defined small or hazy clustered nodules or areas of air trapping characterized by hyperlucency and/or oligemia 6.
The presence of bronchiolitis is best assessed with HRCT. CT features include one of a combination of
centrilobular micronodules (often seen as tree-in-bud opacities),
bronchiolar dilatation (often referred to as bronchiolectasis)
mosaic attenuation (and/or air trapping if expiratory imaging is used)
One method of classifying various forms of bronchiolitis is as follows 1:
bronchiolitis associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis
respiratory bronchiolitis/respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease
bronchiolitis with associated bronchiectasis
Exact radiographic features are best discussed under each sub-topic.
Other specific forms according to underlying pathology include:
- 1. Pipavath SJ, Lynch DA, Cool C et-al. Radiologic and pathologic features of bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185 (2): 354-63. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Hwang JH, Kim TS, Lee KS et-al. Bronchiolitis in adults: pathology and imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 21 (6): 913-9. J Comput Assist Tomogr (link) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Essadki O, Grenier P. [Bronchiolitis: computed tomographic findings]. J Radiol. 1999;80 (1): 17-24. J Radiol (link) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Beigelman-aubry C, Touitou D, Mahjoub R et-al. [CT imaging features of bronchiolitis]. J Radiol. 2009;90 (11 Pt 2): 1830-40. J Radiol (link) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Franquet T, MüLler NL. Disorders of the small airways: high-resolution computed tomographic features. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;24 (04): 437-44. doi:10.1055/s-2003-42378 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Winningham PJ, Martínez-Jiménez S, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, et all. A. Bronchiolitis: A Practical Approach for the General Radiologist. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 37 (3): 777-794. doi:10.1148/rg.2017160131 - Pubmed