Citation, DOI and article data
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) refers to late pathological lung changes that develop in infants after several weeks on prolonged ventilation.
BPD and chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) have often been used interchangeably to describe the condition post-treatment of premature infants for respiratory distress syndrome. However, some suggest that there are different underlying pathogeneses and that CLDP encompasses other conditions besides BPD 12,13.
It is the result of a paradoxical combination of hypoxia and oxygen toxicity. There is initial capillary wall damage, interstitial fluid seepage and ensuing pulmonary edema, which is followed by loss of ciliated epithelium and bronchiolar mucosal necrosis. Areas of both hyperexpansion and atelectasis are seen. This is followed by eosinophilic exudate and squamous metaplasia and may ultimately lead to interstitial fibrosis/fibro-proliferative bronchiolitis.
- ill-defined reticular markings with interspersed rounded lucent areas diffusely involving hyperinflated lungs
- the lungs may have relatively normal AP diameter on the lateral film
- presence of cardiomegaly may indicate the development of pulmonary hypertension
- in chronic cases, the lateral film may show a much narrower AP diameter compared with the chest width on the frontal film
- mosaic lung parenchymal pattern with areas of low attenuation and focal air trapping on expiratory HRCT (considered the most sensitive finding for predicting severity)
- bronchial wall thickening (considered the most frequent finding)
- small subpleural triangular/linear opacities
Bronchiectatic changes are usually not considered a feature 4.
Treatment and prognosis
Infants who survive neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia often show a slow but continuous improvement in respiratory status. Young adult survivors who have had moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia may have residual functional and characteristic structural pulmonary abnormalities; of these, the most notable is pulmonary emphysema 7.
General imaging differential considerations include:
- 1. Griscom NT, Wheeler WB, Sweezey NB et-al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: radiographic appearance in middle childhood. Radiology. 1989;171 (3): 811-4. Pubmed citation
- 2. Howling SJ, Northway WH, Hansell DM et-al. Pulmonary sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia survivors: high-resolution CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174 (5): 1323-6. doi:10.2214/ajr.174.5.1741323 - Pubmed citation
- 3. De Boeck K, Smith J, Van Lierde S et-al. Flat chest in survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 1994;18 (2): 104-7. Pubmed citation
- 4. Oppenheim C, Mamou-Mani T, Sayegh N et-al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: value of CT in identifying pulmonary sequelae. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;163 (1): 169-72. doi:10.2214/ajr.163.1.8010206 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Aquino SL, Schechter MS, Chiles C et-al. High-resolution inspiratory and expiratory CT in older children and adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999;173 (4): 963-7. doi:10.2214/ajr.173.4.10511158 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Breysem L, Smet MH, Van Lierde S et-al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27 (8): 642-6. Pubmed citation
- 7. Wong PM, Lees AN, Louw J et-al. Emphysema in young adult survivors of moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Eur. Respir. J. 2008;32 (2): 321-8. doi:10.1183/09031936.00127107 - Pubmed citation
- 8. Tonson la Tour A, Spadola L, Sayegh Y et-al. Chest CT in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical and radiological correlations. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2013;48 (7): 693-8. doi:10.1002/ppul.22714 - Pubmed citation
- 9. Shin SM, Kim WS, Cheon JE et-al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: new high resolution computed tomography scoring system and correlation between the high resolution computed tomography score and clinical severity. Korean J Radiol. 2013;14 (2): 350-60. doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.2.350 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 10. Ochiai M, Hikino S, Yabuuchi H et-al. A new scoring system for computed tomography of the chest for assessing the clinical status of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J. Pediatr. 2008;152 (1): 90-5, 95.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.05.043 - Pubmed citation
- 11. Wilson AC. What does imaging the chest tell us about bronchopulmonary dysplasia?. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2010;11 (3): 158-61. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2010.05.005 - Pubmed citation
- 12. Eber E, Zach MS. Long term sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease of infancy). Thorax. 2001;56 (4): 317-23. doi:10.1136/thorax.56.4.317 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 13. Allen J, Zwerdling R, Ehrenkranz R et-al. Statement on the care of the child with chronic lung disease of infancy and childhood. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003;168 (3): 356-96. doi:10.1164/rccm.168.3.356 - Pubmed citation