Calcific tendinitis

Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition due to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of the hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD)

Typically this condition affects middle-aged patients between the ages of 30 and 60, with a slight predilection for women 2.

The condition passes through four stages 2:

  1. pre-calcific
    • asymptomatic
    • fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (see below)
  2. calcific or formative
    • symptoms are variable from none to pain on movement
  3. resorptive
    • most symptomatic
    • pain due to extravasation of calcium hydroxyapatite into adjacent tissues, especially subacromial bursa, causing calcific bursitis
    • pain typically lasts 2 weeks
  4. post-calcific
    • variable symptomatology
    • some restriction of movement common
    • may last months

Calcific tendonitis results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within the substance of a tendon, and is thought to be due to decreased oxygen tension, leading to fibrocartilaginous metaplasia and secondary mineralisation 1.

Location

This condition most frequently affects the rotator cuff of the shoulder 1.

Plain radiograph

Calcific deposits are usually visualised as homogeneous hyperdensity with variable morphology, but typically globular/amorphous with poor margins.

MRI
  • T1
    • hypointense homogeneous signal
    • adjacent tendon may be thickened
    • some enhancement surrounding deposit may be seen
  • T2
    • hypointense calcium deposits
    • hyperintense signal may be present peripherally due to oedema
    • hyperintense subacromial-subdeltoid bursal fluid
  • T2*: calcifications may bloom

Controversial and difficult to measure due to the inherent variability of the symptoms and the self-limiting nature of the disease. Potential treatments include 2:

  • oral analgesic/anti-inflammatory medication
  • subacromial local anaesthetic/steroid injection
  • aspiration of mineralised material
  • ultrasound therapy

In the shoulder consider:

  • incidental calcification: seen in 2.5-20% of 'normal' healthy shoulders 1-2
  • degenerative calcification
    • seen in previously torn tendons
    • generally smaller
    • slightly older individuals
  • loose bodies
    • associated chondral defect
    • associated secondary osteoarthritis
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Article information

rID: 1994
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff
  • Calcific tendonitis
  • Rotator cuff calcific tendinitis
  • Calcific tendinopathy

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Cases and figures

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    Calcification in ...
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    Case 4: supraspinatus calcific tendinopathy - MRI
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    Case 8: on MRI
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    Case 12: of longus colli in the neck
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    Case 14
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    Case 15: Achille's tendon
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    Case 16
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