It typically presents in younger women with the average age of onset at around 45 years.
- human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections: for most types except for clear cell carcinoma of the cervix and mesonephric carcinoma of the cervix
- multiple sexual partners or a male partner with multiple previous or current sexual partners
- young age at first intercourse
- high parity
- certain HLA subtypes
- oral contraceptives
- nicotine/smoking (except for cervical adenocarcinoma 26)
Presenting symptoms include:
- vaginal bleeding
- vaginal discharge
- subclinical: abnormal cervical cancer screening test
Invasive cervical carcinoma is thought to arise from the transformation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
The main histological types are:
- squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: accounts for the vast majority (80-90%) of cases and is associated with exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV)
- adenocarcinoma of the cervix: rarer (5-20%) and can have several subtypes which include 11,20
neuroendocrine tumours of the cervix
- small cell carcinoma of the cervix: rare (0.5-6%) 18,22
- adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: rare
For a detailed overview, refer to:
Cervical squamous cell carcinoma arises from the squamocolumnar junction while adenocarcinomas arise from the endocervix. This is situated on the ectocervix in younger patients though regresses into the endocervical canal with age. Hence cervical tumours tend to be exophytic in younger patients and endophytic with advancing age.
In order to be radiographically visible, tumours must be at least stage Ib or above (see staging). MRI is the imaging modality of choice to depict the primary tumour and assess local extent. Distant metastatic disease is best assessed with CT or PET, where available.
Although the FIGO staging system is clinically based, the revised 2009 FIGO staging encourages imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging. MRI can stratify patients to the optimum treatment group of primary surgery or combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumours stage IIa and below are treated with surgery.
- hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass involving the cervix
- may show increased vascularity on colour Doppler
- although cervical cancer is staged clinically, ultrasound can be a useful adjunct by showing
- size (<4 cm or >4 cm)
- parametrial invasion
- tumour invasion into the vagina
- tumour invasion into adjacent organs
- hydronephrosis: implies stage IIIB tumour.
CT, in general, is not very useful in the assessment of the primary tumour, but it can be useful in assessing advanced disease. It is performed primarily to assess adenopathy, but also has roles in defining advanced disease, monitoring distant metastasis, planning the placement of radiation ports, and guiding percutaneous biopsy.
On CT, the primary tumour can be hypoenhancing or isoenhancing to normal cervical stroma (~50% 19).
PET-CT in conjunction with pelvic MRI is often used as an imaging strategy in helping stage cervical carcinoma.
A dedicated MRI protocol is often useful for optimal imaging assessment.
The normal low signal cervical stroma provides intrinsic contrast for the high signal cervical tumour.
- T1: usually isointense compared with pelvic muscles
- hyperintense relative to the low signal of the cervical stroma
- hyperintensity is thought to be present regardless of histological subtype 1
T1 C+ (Gd)
- contrast is not routinely used, though it may be helpful to demonstrate small tumours considered for trachelectomy
- on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, tumour presents as a high signal relative to the low signal of the cervical stroma 24
For further information, see the article: MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer.
Treatment and prognosis
Prognosis is affected by many factors which include:
- tumour stage
- volume of the primary mass
- histologic grade
Five-year survival rates vary between 92% for stage I disease and 17% for stage IV disease 18.
One of the keys roles of the radiologist is to help determine staging, as this may lead to appropriate management pathway either with surgery or chemo-radiotherapy. At the time of writing stage IIa vs. IIb is considered as an important separator in deciding whether a case is operable or not.
For a mass involving the cervix consider:
- cervical polyp
- cervical leiomyoma
- invasion of the cervix from
- cervical lymphoma
- adenoma malignum: often considered a subtype of mucinous carcinoma of the cervix
- metastases to the cervix
- cervical ectopic pregnancy: consider with women of childbearing age with a high βHCG
- MRI T2WI to assess parametrial invasion (stage 2b) is crucial to determine if the patient is candidate for surgery or not
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Ultrasound - gynaecology
- ultrasound (introduction)
- acute pelvic pain
- chronic pelvic pain
- Mullerian duct anomalies
- ovarian follicle
- ovarian torsion
- pelvic inflammatory disease
- ovarian cysts and masses
- ovarian cyst
- corpus luteum
- haemorrhagic ovarian cyst
- ruptured ovarian cyst
- ovarian epithelial tumours
- granulosa cell tumours of the ovary
- paraovarian cyst
- polycystic ovaries
- ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
- post-hysterectomy ovary
- fallopian tube