Carcinoma of the cervix
Citation, DOI and article data
It typically presents in younger women with an average age of onset at around 45 years.
- human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections: for most types except for clear cell carcinoma of the cervix and mesonephric carcinoma of the cervix
- multiple sexual partners or a male partner with multiple previous or current sexual partners
- young age at first intercourse
- high parity
- certain HLA subtypes
- oral contraceptives
- nicotine/smoking (except for cervical adenocarcinoma 26)
Presenting symptoms include:
- vaginal bleeding
- vaginal discharge
- subclinical: an abnormal cervical cancer screening test
Invasive cervical carcinoma is thought to arise from the transformation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
The main histological types are:
- squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: accounts for the vast majority (80-90%) of cases and is associated with exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV)
- adenocarcinoma of the cervix: rarer (5-20%) and can have several subtypes which include 11,20
neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix
- small cell carcinoma of the cervix: rare (0.5-6%) 18,22
- adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: rare
For a detailed overview, refer to:
Cervical squamous cell carcinoma arises from the squamocolumnar junction while adenocarcinomas arise from the endocervix. The squamocolumnar junction is situated on the ectocervix in younger patients though regresses into the endocervical canal with age. Hence cervical tumors tend to be exophytic in younger patients and endophytic with advancing age.
In order to be radiographically visible, tumors must be at least stage Ib or above (see staging). MRI is the imaging modality of choice to depict the primary tumor and assess the local extent. Distant metastatic disease is best assessed with CT or PET, where available.
Although the FIGO staging system is clinically based, the revised 2009 FIGO staging encourages imaging as an adjunct to clinical staging. MRI can stratify patients to the optimum treatment group of primary surgery or combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumors stage IIa and below are treated with surgery.
- hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass involving the cervix
- may show increased vascularity on color Doppler
- although cervical cancer is staged clinically, ultrasound can be a useful adjunct by showing
- size (<4 cm or >4 cm)
- parametrial invasion
- tumor invasion into the vagina
- tumor invasion into adjacent organs
- hydronephrosis: implies stage IIIB tumor.
CT, in general, is not very useful in the assessment of the primary tumor, but it can be useful in assessing the advanced disease. It is performed primarily to assess adenopathy, but also has roles in defining advanced disease, monitoring distant metastasis, planning the placement of radiation ports, and guiding percutaneous biopsy.
On CT, the primary tumor can be hypoenhancing or isoenhancing to normal cervical stroma (~50% 19).
PET-CT in conjunction with pelvic MRI is often used as an imaging strategy in helping stage cervical carcinoma.
A dedicated MRI protocol is often useful for optimal imaging assessment.
The normal low signal cervical stroma provides intrinsic contrast for the high signal cervical tumor.
- T1: usually isointense compared with pelvic muscles
- hyperintense relative to the low signal of the cervical stroma
- hyperintensity is thought to be present regardless of histological subtype 1
T1 C+ (Gd)
- contrast is not routinely used, though it may be helpful to demonstrate small tumors considered for trachelectomy
- on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, tumor presents as a high signal relative to the low signal of the cervical stroma 24
For further information, see the article: MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer.
Treatment and prognosis
Prognosis is affected by many factors which include:
- tumor stage
- the volume of the primary mass
- histologic grade
Five-year survival rates vary between 92% for stage I disease and 17% for stage IV disease 18.
One of the key roles of the radiologist is to help determine staging, as this may lead to appropriate management pathway either with surgery or chemo-radiotherapy. At the time of writing stage IIa vs. IIb is considered as an important separator in deciding whether a case is operable or not.
For a mass involving the cervix consider:
- cervical polyp
- cervical leiomyoma
- invasion of the cervix from
- cervical lymphoma
- adenoma malignum: often considered a subtype of mucinous carcinoma of the cervix
- metastases to the cervix
- cervical ectopic pregnancy: consider with women of childbearing age with a high βHCG
- MRI T2WI to assess parametrial invasion (stage 2b) is crucial to determine if the patient is candidate for surgery or not
- 1. Pannu HK, Corl FM, Fishman EK. CT evaluation of cervical cancer: spectrum of disease. Radiographics. 21 (5): 1155-68. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Nicolet V, Carignan L, Bourdon F et-al. MR imaging of cervical carcinoma: a practical staging approach. Radiographics. 20 (6): 1539-49. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Hricak H, Yu KK. Radiology in invasive cervical cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167 (5): 1101-8. AJR Am J Roentgenol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Rezvani M, Shaaban A. Imaging of cervical pathology. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52 (1): 94-111. doi:10.1097/GRF.0b013e31819617f1 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Kim SH, Choi BI, Lee HP et-al. Uterine cervical carcinoma: comparison of CT and MR findings. Radiology. 1990;175 (1): 45-51. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Subak LL, Hricak H, Powell CB et-al. Cervical carcinoma: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative staging. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86 (1): 43-50. - Pubmed citation
- 7. Mezrich R. Magnetic resonance imaging applications in uterine cervical cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1994;2 (2): 211-43. - Pubmed citation
- 8. Son H, Kositwattanarerk A, Hayes MP et-al. PET/CT evaluation of cervical cancer: spectrum of disease. Radiographics. 2010;30 (5): 1251-68. doi:10.1148/rg.305105703 - Pubmed citation
- 9. Chiang SH, Quek ST. Carcinoma of the cervix: role of MR imaging. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 2003;32 (4): 550-6. - Pubmed citation
- 10. Zand KR, Reinhold C, Abe H et-al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervix. Cancer Imaging. 2007;7 : 69-76. doi:10.1102/1470-7330.2007.0011 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 11.Hiromura T, Tanaka YO, Nishioka T et-al. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix arising from a background of cervical endometriosis. Br J Radiol. 2009;82 (973): e20-2. doi:10.1259/bjr/75304693 - Pubmed citation
- 12. Jena A, Oberoi R, Rawal S et-al. Parametrial invasion in carcinoma of cervix: role of MRI measured tumour volume. Br J Radiol. 2005;78 (936): 1075-7. doi:10.1259/bjr/36116150 - Pubmed citation
- 13. Babar S, Rockall A, Goode A et-al. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances of recurrent cervical carcinoma. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 17 (3): 637-45. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1438.2007.00849.x - Pubmed citation
- 14. Gold MA. PET in cervical cancer--implications for 'staging,' treatment planning, assessment of prognosis, and prediction of response. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2008;6 (1): 37-45. - Pubmed citation
- 15. Epstein E, Di legge A, Måsbäck A et-al. Sonographic characteristics of squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36 (4): 512-6. doi:10.1002/uog.7638 - Pubmed citation
- 16. Okamoto Y, Tanaka YO, Nishida M et-al. MR imaging of the uterine cervix: imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23 (2): 425-45. doi:10.1148/rg.232025065 - Pubmed citation
- 17. Jeong YY, Kang HK, Chung TW et-al. Uterine cervical carcinoma after therapy: CT and MR imaging findings. Radiographics. 23 (4): 969-81. doi:10.1148/rg.234035001 - Pubmed citation
- 18. Sala E, Wakely S, Senior E et-al. MRI of malignant neoplasms of the uterine corpus and cervix. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188 (6): 1577-87. doi:10.2214/AJR.06.1196 - Pubmed citation
- 19. Kaur H, Silverman PM, Iyer RB et-al. Diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of cervical carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180 (6): 1621-31. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 20. Shreve P. Clinical PET-CT. Springer Verlag. (2010) ISBN:0387489002. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 21. Levine DA, Santos JF, Fleming GF. Handbook for Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2010) ISBN:0781778484. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 22. Yang DH, Kim JK, Kim KW et-al. MRI of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182 (5): 1255-8. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 23. Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Doeberitz MV, Trunk MJ. Color Atlas of Histopathology of the Cervix Uteri. Springer Verlag. (2010) ISBN:3642064337. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 24. Brocker KA, Alt CD, Eichbaum M et-al. Imaging of female pelvic malignancies regarding MRI, CT, and PET/CT: part 1. Strahlenther Onkol. 2011;187 (10): 611-8. doi:10.1007/s00066-011-4001-0 - Pubmed citation
- 25. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC et-al. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Saunders. ISBN:1416031219. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 26. Berrington de González A, Sweetland S, Green J. Comparison of risk factors for squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the cervix: a meta-analysis. Br. J. Cancer. 2004;90 (9): 1787-91. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601764 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation