Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy and pathology.
Main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are:
- a better definition of soft tissues
- use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy
- avoid ionising radiation
- nevertheless, there are some safety issues that must be considered.
The main limitation of MRI, in comparison with cardiac CT, is poorer evaluation of the coronary arteries.
In addition, cardiac MRI employs some particular imaging planes.
Dark blood Imaging
Dark blood imaging involves spin echo sequences. Its main advantage is a fast acquisition that minimizes respiratory and cardiac movement artifacts. It’s the main issue is a low signal/noise ratio and, therefore, a deficient spatial resolution.
They can be T1, T2 or PD weighted sequences:
- T1 weighted sequences achieve better anatomic definition
- T2 and DP weighted sequences reach better tissue characterization
White blood Imaging
The main advantage of white blood imaging is its fast acquisition. It can obtain movement sequences and allows studying cardiac function and movement.
Flux quantification sequences
Inversion Recovery sequences
This imaging techniques use additional 180º pulses to null signal from blood and other tissues, and, therefore, improving contrast.
The most used sequence is STIR.
Perfusion imaging (also known as first-pass images)
They are T1 weighted, gradient-echo sequences. Image acquisition is performed 3 minutes after gadolinium contrast administration. If there is a hypoenhanced area, this implies a zone of myocardial infarction that is non-viable.
Viability study delayed (also known as myocardial enhancement study)
They are T1 weighted, gradient-echo sequences. Image acquisition is performed 10 minutes after gadolinium contrast administration.
Focal myocardial fibrosis has a delayed gadolinium contrast wash out. So an hyperenhancement indicates a myocardial scar, thus an evolved myocardial infarction.
Usually, an extra inversion pulse is used to improve contrast between fibrosis and the surrounding myocardium.
- 1. Ginat DT, Fong MW, Tuttle DJ, Hobbs SK, Vyas RC. Cardiac Imaging: Part 1, MR Pulse Sequences, Imaging Planes, and Basic Anatomy. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2011 Oct 1;197(4):808–15.
- 2. Gaba RC, Carlos RC, Weadock WJ, Reddy GP, Sneider MB, Cascade PN. Cardiovascular MR Imaging: Technique Optimization and Detection of Disease in Clinical Practice. RadioGraphics. 2002 Nov 1;22(6):e6–e6.
- 3. Hernández C, Zudaire B, Castaño S, Azcárate P, Villanueva A, Bastarrika G. Principios básicos de resonancia magnética cardiovascular (RMC): secuencias, planos de adquisición y protocolo de estudio. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra. 2007 Dec;30(3):405–18.
- 4. Reeder SB, Du YP, Lima JAC, Bluemke DA. Advanced Cardiac MR Imaging of Ischemic Heart Disease. RadioGraphics. 2001 Jul 1;21(4):1047–74.
- 5. Alberto San Román J, Soler Fernández R, Rodríguez García E, Fernández-Avilés F. Conocimientos básicos necesarios para realizar resonancia magnética en cardiología. Revista Española de Cardiologia. 2006 Jun;6(Supl.E):7–14.