Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting emergency medical scenario with very high mortality unless its etiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is:

  • MAD (triple H) CAT


  • H: hypoxia/hypothermia
  • H: hypovolemia
  • H: hypokalemia/hyperkalemia

A useful way to remember the mnemonic is recalling Triple H, one of the biggest WWE stars, and his "mad cat".

Article information

rID: 7169
System: Cardiac
Section: Mnemonics
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Mad Triple H Cat (mnemonic)
  • MAD HHH CAT (mnemonic)
  • MAD (Triple H) CAT (mnemonic)
  • Causes of electromechanical dissociation (mnemonic)
  • Causes of EMD (mnemonic)

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Cases and figures

  • Tension pneumothorax
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  • Massive bilateral...
    Massive pulmonary embolism
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  • Cardiac tamponade
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