Caval variants

Last revised by Mohammadtaghi Niknejad on 05 Oct 2022

Caval variants, the variance of the anatomy of the venae cavae are common,  due to the complex embryology of the venous system.
Caval variants are important for a number of reasons:

  • to avoid confusion with venous pathology
  • to suggest the presence of frequently associated abnormalities
  • to plan vascular intervention/surgery

Types

See also

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1
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  • Case 1: left sided superior vena cava
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  • Case 2: retrocaval ureter
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  • Case 3: duplication of the inferior vena cava
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  • Case 4: left sided inferior vena cava
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  • Case 5: azygous continuation of IVC
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  • Case 6: hemiazygous continuation of the IVC
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