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At the time the article was created Yuranga Weerakkody had no recorded disclosures.View Yuranga Weerakkody's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Frank Gaillard had the following disclosures:
- Radiopaedia Australia Pty Ltd, Founder and CEO (ongoing)
- Biogen Australia Pty Ltd, Investigator-Initiated Research Grant for CAD software development in multiple sclerosis. (past)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes for the p16 protein, involved in the CDK4/6–RB1 cell-cycle pathway 5.
p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker indicating expression of the cell cycle protein, which is upregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is of prognostic importance in a variety of tumors. In squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, elevation of p16 infers HPV-related etiology and confers, particularly in the oropharynx, a better prognosis 2,3.
In the uterine cervix, where essentially all squamous cell carcinomas are associated with human papillomavirus infection, p16 positivity supports the diagnosis of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1.
In contrast, the CDNK2A gene is inactivated (e.g. by somatic mutations/deletions) in numerous tumors including glioblastoma 4,5.
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- 2. Duncan LD, Winkler M, Carlson ER, Heidel RE, Kang E, Webb D. p16 immunohistochemistry can be used to detect human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 71 (8): 1367-75. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2013.02.019 - Pubmed
- 3. Ai L, Stephenson K, Ling W et al. The P16 (CDKN2a/INK4a) Tumor-Suppressor Gene in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Promoter Methylation and Protein Expression Study in 100 Cases. Mod Pathol. 2003;16(9):944-50. doi:10.1097/01.MP.0000085760.74313.DD - Pubmed
- 4. Foulkes W, Flanders T, Pollock P, Hayward N. The CDKN2A (P16) Gene and Human Cancer. Mol Med. 1997;3(1):5-20. doi:10.1007/bf03401664
- 5. Louis DN, Giannini C, Perry A, Reifenberger G, et al. Glioblastoma. In: WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board. Central nervous system tumours. Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2021. (WHO classification of tumours series, 5th ed.; vol. 6). https://publications.iarc.fr/601