Cerebral oedema (summary)

Dr Craig Hacking and Dr Jeremy Jones et al.
This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists

Cerebral oedema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey and white matter) oedema.

Reference article

This is a summary article; read more in our article on cerebral oedema.

  • pathophysiology
    • oedema within the brain parenchyma (white and/or grey matter)
      • the result of a brain insult (ischaemia/infarction, infection, tumour etc)
    • two main types of cerebral oedema
      • cytotoxic
        • affects white and grey matter
        • blurring of the grey-white junction
        • usually the result of ischaemia and/or infarction
      • vasogenic
        • affects white matter only
        • surrounds a mass, i.e. usually an abscess or a tumour
    • periventricular oedema occurs secondary to acute hydrocephalus as CSF pressure builds and seeps into the periventricular white matter

CT head | MRI brain

  • role of imaging
    • confirm the presence of oedema
    • determine the likely underlying cause
    • determine whether there is sequela from any mass effect
  • radiographic features
    • compression and displacement of adjacent structures
    • change in parencymal density (CT) and signal (MRI)
      • reduced density (attenuation) on CT
      • high-signal on T2-weighted sequences (MRI)
      • low-signal on T1-weighted sequences (MRI)
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Article information

rID: 55164
Section: Approach
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:

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Cases and figures

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    Vasogenic oedema (breast cancer metastasis)
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    Cytotoxic oedema (left MCA stroke)
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    Vasogenic oedema (renal cell cancer metastasis)
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    Hydrocephalus with periventricular oedema
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