Cerebrovascular malformations are vascular malformations related to the vessels that supply the brain and other cranial structures.
Over the years, cerebrovascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by different authors.
Over the years cerebral vascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by many authors, often on the basis of the presence or absence of arteriovenous shunting, histopathological features or demographics of affected individuals 4.
High or low flow
- high flow
- low flow
Presence or absence of shunting
- with shunting
- without shunting
- arterial lesions
- focal arterial lesions
- segmental arterial lesions
- twin aneurysm and segmental aneurysm
- metameric arterial lesions
- defected mesodermal cell migration gives rise to metameric syndrome or CAMS (craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome), including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome
- capillary lesions
- focal capillary lesions
- segmental capillary lesions
- metameric capillary lesions
- venous lesions
- focal venous lesions
- segmental venous lesions
- metameric venous lesions (also termed as craniofacial venous metameric syndrome)
Some lesions are only encountered in specific age-groups, usually within early childhood.
- in utero: pial high flow AVF, VGAM, DSM
- neonate: VGAM, pial high flow AVF, DSM
- infant: VGAM, pial AVMs, cavernous angiomas, aneurysm
- child: pial AVM (nidal > fistulous), aneurysm, cavernous venous malformation (cavernoma), dural AVF
- 1. Weissleder R, Wittenberg J, Harisinghani MG. Primer of diagnostic imaging. Mosby Inc. (2007) ISBN:0323040683. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Geibprasert S, Pongpech S, Jiarakongmun P et-al. Radiologic assessment of brain arteriovenous malformations: what clinicians need to know. Radiographics. 30 (2): 483-501. doi:10.1148/rg.302095728 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Krings T, Geibprasert S, Terbrugge K. Classification and endovascular management of pediatric cerebral vascular malformations. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 2010;21 (3): 463-82. doi:10.1016/j.nec.2010.03.010 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Byrne JV. Tutorials in Endovascular Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology. Springer. (2012) ISBN:3642191533. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon