Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a relatively rare clonal haematologic disorder. It is sometimes classified as a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but also has features of myeloproliferative disease (MPD).
Can be variable but many patients tend to present with fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.
It is usually characterised by accumulation of monocytes in the blood and bone marrow, dysplastic hematopoiesis.
The diagnosis is characterised by:
- peripheral monocytosis (>1 × 109/L)
- absence of Philadelphia chromosome and BCR/ABL fusion gene
- fewer than 20% lymphoblasts in the blood or bone marrow
- dysplasia involving 1 or more myeloid lineages
Treatment and prognosis
The clinical course is variable. There is potential for leukaemic involvement of organs. Blood transfusions and erythropoietin (EPO) administration may play a role in correcting low haemoglobin levels in cases with anaemia.
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