Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Craig Hacking had no recorded disclosures.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
The ciliary ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus via the oculomotor nerve. It supplies the eye via short ciliary nerves not only with parasympathetic fibers, but also with sensory and sympathetic fibers that pass through the ganglion.
smallest of the ganglia (2 mm in size)
Although the ciliary ganglion has parasympathetic, sensory and sympathetic roots, only the parasympathetic ones synapse within the ganglion.
via the small communicating branch of the ciliary ganglion (from the nasociliary nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve)
fibers pass through the ganglion without synapsing
Note: while both long ciliary nerves (branches of the nasociliary nerve) and short ciliary nerves contain sensory/sympathetic supply to the cornea, iris, and ciliary body, only the short ciliary nerves are involved in pupillary constriction and accommodation.
pathology of the ciliary ganglion can produce a tonic pupil, where the pupil does not react to light and slowly accommodates
Adie syndrome: when a non-reactive, slowly accomodating pupil is associated with absent deep tendon reflexes and diaphoresis
- 1. Moore KL, Agur AMR, Dalley AF. Clinically oriented anatomy. LWW. ISBN:1451119453. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Last's anatomy, regional and applied. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN:044304662X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Robert H. Whitaker, Neil R. Borley. Instant Anatomy. ISBN: 9780632054039