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At the time the article was created Craig Hacking had no recorded disclosures.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
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Circumduction is the orderly combination of shoulder movements so that the hand traces a circle and the arm traces a cone. In order it is produced by shoulder flexion, abduction, extension and abduction (or the reverse).
It is hence produced by co-ordination of all the muscles that produce these individual movements but also relies on other joints of the pectoral girdle such as the acromioclavicular joint and scapulothoracic joint.
See also movements of the arm.
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