Circumflex artery

The circumflex artery (Cx) is a major coronary artery that divides off the left main coronary artery (the other branch being the left anterior descending (LAD) artery).

The circumflex artery is referred to by multiple terms:

  • circumflex artery (Cx)
  • ramus circumflex artery (RCx)
  • left circumflex artery (LCx)

The artery travels in the left atrioventricular groove between the left ventricle and left atrium. The artery is located in the epicardium.

The circumflex artery gives off up to three obtuse marginal branches and may give off a left posterolateral branch and may supply the inferior interventricular artery (see variant anatomy below).

    Branches of the circumflex artery supply the lateral and posterolateral walls of the left ventricle.

    Most hearts are right dominant where the posterior descending artery (PDA) is supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA). However up to 20% of hearts may be left dominant, where the PDA is supplied by the LAD or LCx or codominant, where a single or duplicated PDA is supplied by branches of both the RCA and LAD/LCx.

    For a more in depth discussion of coronary dominance, see the article coronary arterial dominance.

    • in a left-dominant circulation, the circumflex artery supplies the inferior interventricular artery, instead of the right coronary artery
    • in a co-dominant circulation, both the circumflex artery and RCA supply the inferior interventricular artery (or a duplicated inferior interventricular artery)
      • the RCA supplying the inferior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery supplying a large left posterolateral branch has also been considered co-dominant
    • the circumflex artery may arise separately off the left coronary cusp from the LAD (i.e. no left main coronary artery)
    • the circumflex artery may have an aberrant origin off the right coronary cusp
    Thoracic anatomy
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    Article Information

    rID: 35642
    Systems: Cardiac, Vascular
    Section: Anatomy
    Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
    • Left circumflex artery
    • Left circumflex artery (LCX)
    • Ramus circumflex artery

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