Cloverleaf skull, also known as kleeblattschädel, refers to a type of severe craniosynostosis which gives the skull a cloverleaf shape. It is very rare, with less than 130 case reports globally. It typically results from intrauterine premature closure of sagittal, coronal and lambdoid sutures, through which the cranial contents bulge, giving rise to the characteristic trilobate shape (hence the name).
It is usually seen in the context of the following conditions:
- thanatophoric dysplasia: classically type II only
- severe Apert syndrome
- severe Crouzon syndrome
- Boston-type craniosynostosis
- Carpenter syndrome
The vast majority of patients with Kleeblattschadel have intellectual impairment and hydrocephalus.
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