Coccidioidal meningitis refers to central nervous system involvement of the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, mainly Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasi.
Coccidioidomycosis is endemic to many parts of North, Central, and South America 1. It usually only manifests as coccidioidal meningitis if the patient is immunocompromised, and even then, only in less than 20% of cases of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
The most common symptom is headache, present in 75% of patients 2. It is worth noting that patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis may also have a headache (20%), but this tends to not be persistent, severe, or progressively worsening as it is in coccidioidal meningitis 2,3.
Other clinical features include nausea, vomiting, visual changes (including those of papilloedema), mental status changes, and cranial nerve palsies 3. Unlike bacterial or viral meningitis, clinical signs of meningeal irritation are often absent 3.
These features are in addition to the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary signs and symptoms of coccidioidomycosis. It should be noted that coccidioidal meningitis, being a manifestation of disseminated or extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis, is an AIDS-defining illness.
The overall pathology of coccidioidomycosis is discussed elsewhere (see coccidioidomycosis and Figure 1). Coccidioidal meningitis results from haematogenous spread of endospores from the lungs.
Coccidioidal meningitis has numerous imaging features and complications, including secondary hydrocephalus, vasculitis and associated subarachnoid haemorrhage and deep cerebral infarction, and cerebral or spinal abscesses 4-6. MRI is generally considered to be superior in detecting these features when compared to CT 4-6.
The classic finding on MRI is leptomeningeal enhancement on post-gadolinium images that is characteristically localised to the basal cisterns 4,5, but can also be diffuse 4. This enhancement may also extend inferiorly along the spinal cord 4. Interestingly, these areas of leptomeningeal enhancement may have low signal on T2-weighted imaging, perhaps as a result of accompanying haemosiderin from accompanying subarachnoid bleeding 4.
Accompanying this enhancement may be evidence of vasculitis including subarachnoid haemorrhage around the basal cisterns 4,5, or infarction (see ischaemic stroke for MRI appearances) involving deep perforating artery territories in structures of the brain such as those located in the thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem 4,5. Focal leptomeningeal enhancement may be appreciated around the parent artery 4. Cortical infarction can also occur but is considered far less common 4.
Secondary communicating hydrocephalus has been appreciated in 70-90% of patients 4, but may be absent in imaging at initial presentation 4. Abscesses, either cerebral or spinal, may also be uncommonly present and are radiographically indistinguishable from pyogenic abscesses 5.
Treatment and prognosis
The mainstay of medical treatment of coccidioidal meningitis is with antifungal agents such as fluconazole 7. A neurosurgical consult may also be warranted for patients with hydrocephalus or cerebral abscesses, where a shunt may be needed for decompression in the former 8. Without treatment, prognosis is very poor, with 95% of patients not surviving more than two years 3.
- 1. Saubolle MA, McKellar PP, Sussland D. Epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of coccidioidomycosis. Journal of clinical microbiology. 45 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1128/JCM.02230-06 - Pubmed
- 2. Crum NF, Lederman ER, Stafford CM, Parrish JS, Wallace MR. Coccidioidomycosis: a descriptive survey of a reemerging disease. Clinical characteristics and current controversies. Medicine. 83 (3): 149-75. Pubmed
- 3. Vincent T, Galgiani JN, Huppert M, Salkin D. The natural history of coccidioidal meningitis: VA-Armed Forces cooperative studies, 1955-1958. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 16 (2): 247-54. Pubmed
- 4. William K. Erly, Richard J. Bellon, Joachim F. Seeger, Raymond F. Carmody. MR Imaging of Acute Coccidioidal Meningitis. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 20 (3): 509. Pubmed
- 5. Gupta NA, Iv M, Pandit RP, Patel MR. Imaging manifestations of primary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Applied Radiology. The Journal Of Practical Medical Imaging Management. 2015.
- 6. Lammering JC, Iv M, Gupta N, Pandit R, Patel MR. Imaging spectrum of CNS coccidioidomycosis: prevalence and significance of concurrent brain and spinal disease. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 200 (6): 1334-46. doi:10.2214/AJR.12.9264 - Pubmed
- 7. Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, Catanzaro A, Geertsma F, Hoover SE, Johnson RH, Kusne S, Lisse J, MacDonald JD, Meyerson SL, Raksin PB, Siever J, Stevens DA, Sunenshine R, Theodore N. 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 63 (6): e112-46. doi:10.1093/cid/ciw360 - Pubmed
- 8. Romeo JH, Rice LB, McQuarrie IG. Hydrocephalus in coccidioidal meningitis: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 47 (3): 773-7. Pubmed
Infections of the central nervous system
- classification by aetiology
- eastern equine encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
herpes virus family
- herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis
- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis
- varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis
- cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
- human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis
- HIV CNS manifestations
- HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
- JC virus
- measles encephalitis
- Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
- rabies encephalitis
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- cerebral amoebiasis
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- others or those with possible infectious aetiologies
- classification by location
- meninges and ventricular system
- brain parenchyma, brainstem, and spinal cord
- classification by aetiology