Complete tracheal rings are a rare, isolated tracheal or tracheobronchial anomaly resulting from abnormal cartilage growth, forming a complete ring and often causing airway stenosis.
Clinically, it manifests as respiratory distress in infants or mild symptomatic airway compromise in children.
The etiology of complete tracheal rings is unknown 4.
- aberrant left pulmonary artery (pulmonary artery sling) in 35-50% 1,4
- >75% have associated esophageal, cardiac, skeletal, and/or genitourinary anomalies 1
- congenital heart disease in 25% 4
- trisomy 21
Treatment and prognosis
Pericardial patch tracheoplasty, cartilage tracheoplasty and slide tracheoplasty are the available surgical options for repair 2,3.
- 1. Puri P, Höllwarth ME. Pediatric Surgery. Springer. (2009) ISBN:3540695605. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Mavroudis C, Backer C. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. John Wiley & Sons. (2012) ISBN:1118320786. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. General Thoracic Surgery. LWW. (2009) ISBN:0781779820. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Congenital Malformations of the Head and Neck. Springer. ISBN:B00H2C1YRW. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon