Congenital aortic stenosis
Congenital aortic stenosis broadly refers to a congenital narrowing of the aortic lumen. Although the term can mean narrowing at any point, it often relates to a narrowing of the aortic valve. As a broad group, there can be some overlap with ascending aortic coarctation depending on the definition used.
Depending on location it can be classified into three types:
- supra valvular stenosis
- congenital aortic valve stenosis (commonest)
- subvalvular stenosis
- Williams syndrome: with supra valvular type
- bicuspid aortic valve 2,4
- aortic coarctation
- hypoplastic left heart
- quadricuspid aortic valve 4
Chest radiographs can be normal or may show evidence of cardiomegaly.
May show a high flow jet through the aortic valve or narrowed segment.
CT / MRI
Apart from showing a narrowed valve annulus and/or narrowing cross-sectional aortic segment it may also show:
- cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy
- post-stenotic dilated segment of the aortic lumen
In MR imaging, velocity encoded phase contrast cine sequences can assist assessing the severity of the stenosis by allowing measurement of blood flow velocities and volumes 2
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